Species extinction is irreversible, and thus perhaps the most fundamental human impact on nature. Globally, the Red List Index— derived based on repeat assessments of every species across groups of mammals, birds, amphibians, corals, and cycads- deteriorated by about 4% from 2015 to 2023. However, over the last three decades since 1993, the Index has deteriorated 10%, with each decade deteriorating at a faster rate than the previous one. In 2022, comprehensive assessments of reptile species found that 21% of species are threatened with extinction. All indications are a deterioration in trend toward the target to halt the loss of biodiversity and, by 2020, protect and prevent the extinction of threatened species.

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